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Ginseng roots (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) have been used traditionally for the treatment, especially prevention, of various diseases in China, Korea, and Japan. Both experimental and clinical studies suggest ginseng roots to have pharmacological effects in patients with life-style-related diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts.

The following studies below describe introduce the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo) and by ultraviolet B irrdiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless(HR-1) mice (in vivo). Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.

  • The effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on skin thickness, elasticity and wrinkle formation

    Research Title
    Effects of Ginseng Saponins isolated from red ginseng on ultraviolet B-induced skin aging in hairless mice
    (Source: European Journal of Pharmacology Volume 602, Issue 1, 5 January 2009, Pages 148–156, Young Gon Kim, Maho Sumiyoshi, Masahiro Sakanaka, Yoshiyuki Kimura)

    Examination Abstract
    It is well-known that chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure at low-dose causes skin photoaging including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity.
    This study examined the effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red Ginseng roots on skin thickness, elasticity, and wrinkle formation caused by long-term, low-dose UVB irradiation in hairless mice.
    Furthermore, This study examined the histological effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 in the skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice.

    Results
    The topical application of total ginseng saponins (10 pg or 100 ng/mouse) and ginsenoside Rb1 (100 fg, 10 pg, or 1 ng/mouse) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and the reduction in skin elasticity induced by long-term UVB irradiation.
    The increases in apoptotic, Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine-positive cells induced by UVB exposure were prevented by the topical application of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb1.
    Furthermore, total saponins and ginsenoside Rb1prevented the disruption of collagen fibers induced by the long-term UVB irradiation.
    Ginsenoside Rb1(100 fg, 10 pg, and 1 ng/ml) increased the Bcl-2 expression level in UVB-treated human keratinocytes.

    The protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on UVB-mediated apoptosis may be due to the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.

    Key Implication
    The protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UVB exposure may be due to the increase in collagen synthesis and/or the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression in dermal fibroblasts.

  • The effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on skin anti-wrinkle

    Research Title
    Effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice
    (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 123, Issue 3, 25 June 2009, Pages 446–451, Tong Ho Kanga, Hye Min Parkb, Yoon-Bum Kimc, Hyunae Kimd, Nami Kime, Jae-Ho Doe, Chulhun Kangb,Yunhi Chod, Sun Yeou Kimb, f,)

    Examination Abstract
    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Korean herb medicine, has been widely used in China and Japan for fatigue and enhancement of resistance to many diseases.
    This study is aimed to assess the effects of Korean red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation induced skin aging in hairless mice.
    Red ginseng extracts prepared with ethanol were used in this study. To standardize Korean red ginseng, it was analyzed by HPLC. And inhibitory effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice were determined by the measurement of wrinkle, expression of type I procollagen and MMP-1 and immunohistology.

    Results
    In the wrinkle measurement and image analysis of skin replicas, the results showed that the dietary supply containing red ginseng extract significantly inhibited wrinkle formation caused by chronic UVB irradiation.
    In the changes of expression of procollagen type I and MMP-1 in the skin of UV irradiated hairless mice fed dietary supplement containing 2.5% red ginseng extract, level of mRNA of procollagen type I was decreased.
    In terms of MMP-1, either mRNA or protein levels of MMP-1 were significantly decreased.


    Key Implication
    These results showed anti-wrinkle effect of Korean red ginseng involved the inhibition of collagen degradation rather than increased collagen synthesis.  
    Korean red ginseng may be functional food candidate for skin photoaging.

  • The effect of ginsenoside on human Type I collagen synthesis

    Research Title
    Panax ginseng induces human Type I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signaling
    (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 109, Issue 1, 3 January 2007, Pages 29–34, Jongsung Leea, b, Eunsun Junga, Jiyoung Leea, Sungran Huha, Jieun Kima, Mijung Parka, Jungwoon Soa,Younggeun Hama, Kwangseon Junga, Chang-Gu Hyuna, Yeong Shik Kimb, Deokhoon Parka,)

    Examination Abstract
    Skin aging appears to be principally related to a decrease in levels of Type I collagen, the primary component of the dermal layer of skin.
    It is important to introduce an efficient agent for effective management of skin aging; this agent should have the fewest possible side effects and the greatest wrinkle-reducing effect.
    This study applied Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Collagen production-promoting agents. This study was designed to investigate the possible collagen production-promoting activities of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer root extract (PGRE) in human dermal fibroblast cells. 
    As a first step to this end, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase assay was performed in human dermal fibroblast cells.
    In this assay, PGRE activated human COL1A2 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner.
    Human Type I procollagen synthesis was also induced by PGRE.


    Results
    These results suggest that PGRE promotes collagen production in human dermal fibroblast cells. 
    Additionally, we have attempted to characterize the mechanism of action of PGRE in Type I procollagen synthesis.
    PGRE was found to induce the phosphorylation of Smad2, an important transcription factor in the production of Type I procollagen.
    When applied topically in a human skin primary irritation test, PGRE did not induce any adverse reactions.

    Key Implication
    These results shows the possibility that PGRE may be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.

  • Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Skin Changes

    Research Title
    Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Skin Changes
    (Source: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2012, Article ID 946242, 11 pages, Yoshiyuki Kimura,1 Maho Sumiyoshi,2 andMasahiro Sakanaka2,)

    Examination Abstract
    The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts.
    This paper describes the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo) and by ultraviolet B irradiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless (HR-1)mice (in vivo).
    Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.

    Results
    The topical application of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from red ginseng roots enhances burn wound healing, and ginsenoside Rb1 prevents chronic UVB-induced skin photoaging, at very low doses. Further studies will be needed to clarify the clinical significance of these findings for skin damage induced by burn wounds or UV irradiation.

    Key Implication
    These experimental results show that Ginsenoside Rb1 enhance burn-wound healing most strongly and increase in collagen synthesis and/or inhibit metalloproteinases expression in dermal fibroblast and epidermal hyperplasia.

  • Research on type I procollagen synthesis

    Effects of the total ginseng saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) on luciferase reporter gene assays in human dermal fibroblast (in vitro).
    Effects of the total ginseng saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) on type I collagen in human dermal fibroblast (in vitro).
    The total saponin fraction (100 to 500 μg/mL) increased type I procollagen synthesis
    (Source: “Panax ginseng induces human type I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signaling,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2007., J. Lee, E. Jung, J. Lee et al.,)

  • Research on inhibition of the increases in epidermis and dermis thickness induced by UVB

    Effects of red ginseng extract (20 and 60 mg/kg, po) on acute UVB-induced skin aging in mice.
    The extract inhibited the increases in epidermis and dermis thickness induced by UVB.
    (Source: “Effects of red ginseng extract on ultraviolet Birradiated skin change in C57BL mice,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1423–1427, 2008.., Y. G. Kim, M. Sumiyoshi, K. Kawahira, M. Sakanaka, and Y. Kimura et al.,)

  • Research on reduction of wrinkling and tumor incidence

    Effects of red ginseng extract (20mg/kg, ip or topical application of 0.2% cream) on chronic UVB-irradiated skin damage in hairless mice. The extract reduced wrinkling and tumor incidence.
    (Source: “Photoprotective effect of red ginseng against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 399–403, 2009.., H. J. Lee, J. S. Kim, M. S. Song et al.,)

  • Research on improvement in facial wrinkling and increase in type I procollagen synthesis

    Healthy female volunteers over 40 years of age were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either red ginseng extract (3 g/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. (Clinical study).
    Red ginseng extract caused an improvement in facial wrinkling and increase in type I procollagen synthesis
    (Source: “Photoprotective effect of red ginseng against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 399–403, 2009.., H. J. Lee, J. S. Kim, M. S. Song et al.,)

  • Research on effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 on angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis

    Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (10 μM) and Rb1 (10 μM) on angiogenesis in scaffold implants in mice (in vivo).
    Effects of Rg1 (125 nM) and Rb1 (125 nM) on chemoinvasion in HUVEC (in vitro).
    Ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced angiogenesis, and ginsenoside Rb1 showed antiangiogenesis in the earliest stage.
    (Source: “Modulating angiogenesis: the yin and the yang in ginseng,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1219–1225, 2004.., S. Sengupta, S. A. Toh, L. A. Sellers et al.,)

  • Research on effect of ginsenoside Rb2 on tumor-induced angiogenesis

    Effects of ginsenoside Rb2 (100 μg/mouse, iv) on tumor-induced angiogenesis in B16-BL6 melanoma-inoculated mice (in vivo).
    Ginsenoside Rb2 showed antiangiogenesis
    (Source: “Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis andmetastasis by a saponin of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside-Rb2,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 635–639, 1994., K. Sato,M.Mochizuki, I. Saiki, Y. C. Yoo, K. I. Samukawa, and I. Azuma)

  • Research on effect of ginsenoside Re on angiogenesis

    Effects of ginsenoside Re (10–100 μg/mL) on angiogenesis in HUVECs (in vitro).
    Effects of Re (70 μg/extracellular matrix) on angiogenesis in extracellular matrix-implanted rats (in vivo).
    Ginsenoside Re showed angiogenesis.
    (Source: “A natural compound (Ginsenoside Re) isolated from Panax ginseng as a novel angiogenic agent for tissue regeneration,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 636–646, 2005.., Y. C. Huang, C. T. Chen, S. C. Chen et al.,)

  • Research on effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on antiangiogenesis

    Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 (20mg/kg, po) on angiogenesis and growth in lung carcinoma-implanted mice.
    Ginsenoside Rg3 showed antiangiogenesis
    (Source: “Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine on angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer in mice,” BMC Cancer, vol. 9, article 250, 2009. T. G. Liu, Y. Huang, D. D. Cui et al.,)

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