• Inhibitory Effect of Ginsenoside-Rb2 and Rg3 on Tumor Metastasis

    Research Title
    Inhibitory Effect of Tumor metastasis in Mice by Saponins, Ginsenoside-Rb2, 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside-Rg3
    (Source: Institute of Immunological Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, bishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan, Mami Mochizuki et al.,)

    Examination Abstract
    This study examined the inhibitory effect of two Saponins from Korean ginseng, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, in comparison with that of Ginsenoside-Rb2, on lung metastasis produced by two highly metastatic tumor cells, B16-BL6 melanoma and colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma, in syngeneic mice.

    Ginsenoside Rb2 inhibited tumor metastasis by surpassing the invasion of endothelial cells orienting toward the tumor mass in a dose-dependent manner at the dose of 0.1~100μg/ml.
    I.V. administration of ginsenoside-Rg2, 20(R)- or 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3 at the dose of 100μg/mouse after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16-BL melanoma cells.
    The treatment with ginsenoside Rb2 during the early period of tumor inoculation inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of tumor-induced angiogenesis was effective in not only with i.v. administration but also with the p.o administration of ginsenoside.

    Key Implication
    Ginsenoside Rb2, 20(R)-and (S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, isolated Panax Ginseng inhibited lung metastasis produced ny B16-BL6 melanoma and Colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma cells. The antimetastatic effect was associated with the inhibition of the invasion and adhesion by tumor cells as well as suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis

  • Inhibition by Ginseng of Colon Carcinogenesis

    Research Title
    Inhibition by Ginseng of Colon Carcinogenesis
    (Source: Nutrition and Cancer 2000; 36: 66-73., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan, Shoji Fukushima*, Hideki Wanibuchi, Wei Li et al.,)

    Examination Abstract
    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in many regions of the world.
    This study examined The inhibitory effects of ginseng on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon were investigated in rats.

    Groups were fed diets containing red and white ginseng, respectively, at a dose of 1% for 5 weeks, starting one week before the first treatment of DMH.
    Numbers of ACF with at least four crypts were significantly reduced in the colon of Group treated with panax ginseng combined with DMH.
    Treatment with red ginseng resulted in a significant decrease of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling indices in colonic crypts comprising ACF.

    Key Implication
    Dietary administration of panax ginseng in combination with DMH suppresses colon carcinogenesis and the inhibition may be associated, in part, with inhibition of cell proliferation, acting on ACF in the colonic mucosa.

  • Epidemiological Study on Cancer Prevention by Ginseng

    Research Title
    Epidemiological Study on Cancer Prevention by Ginseng
    (Source: J Korean Med Sci 2001; 16(Suppl): S19-27 Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Laboratory of Clinical Research, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Taik-Koo Yun et. al.)

    Examination Abstract
    Case-control studies were conducted to confirm whether ginseng has any anticarcinogenic effect on human cancers.
    All participants, 1987 pairs were interviewed with the information on demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and ginseng intake.

    The risk for stomach and lung cancers was significantly reduced by ginseng intake, showing a statistically significant dose-response relationship in each follow-up year.
    The results demonstrated that the anticarcinogenicity was more prominent in aged or heat treated extract of fresh ginseng and red ginseng prepared by steaming.
    The carcinogenic risk on human decreased as the frequency and duration of ginseng intake increased.
    With respect to the site of cancer, the ORs(odds ratio) for cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colorectum, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung and ovary were significantly reduced by ginseng intake. Smokers without ginseng intake showed significantly increased risks for cancers of lung, lip, oral cavity, pharynx, and liver.

    Key Implication
    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been established as non-organ specific cancer preventive, having dose response relationship. These results warrant that ginseng derivatives should be examined for their preventive effect on various types of human cancers.

  • Chemistry and Cancer Preventing Activities of Ginseng Saponins

    Research Title
    (Source: J Korean Med Sci 2001; 16(Suppl): S28-37 Shibata Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Materials c/o Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Shoji Shibata.)

    Research Summary

    • Experimental and epidemiological studies of cancer prevention
    ⇒ After 26 weeks of Carcinogens injected group, proliferation of lung adenoma was inhibited by 23% after 48 weeks and At the 28 weeks of urethane-injected group, ginseng extracts decreased the incidence of lung adenoma by 22% and that of multiplicity by 31%.
    At the 56 weeks of aflatoxin B1 injected group, ginseng extracts decreased the incidence of lung adenoma by 29% and that of hepatoma by 75%. These pre-clinical experiments demonstrated the anticarcinogenic activity of ginseng extracts.

    • Induction of reverse transformation by ginsenoside Rh-2
    ⇒ Ginsenoside fraction of Ginseng extracts induces reverse transformation of cancer cells. Subsequently, ginsenoside Rh-2 obtained from red ginseng inhibited in vitro proliferation of lung cancer cells 3LL (mice), Morris liver cancer cells (rats), B-16 melanoma cells (mice), and HeLa cells (human).

    • Specific inhibition of cancer cell invasion by ginsenosides
    ⇒ More than 10 kinds of ginsenosides Rx were tested for the inhibition of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and ginsenoside Rg-3 was found to be the most effective in preventing invasion of clone MM1 obtained from AH130 rat ascites hepatoma cells, several kinds of cancer cells of human origin, and mouse melanoma B16 cells.

    • Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis
    ⇒ Inhibition of angiogenesis prevents tumor growth, proliferation, and secondary metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis and suppression of invasion, motion and proliferation of tumors, and growth of endothelial cells of blood vessel, are essentially required for cancer prevention.
    Ginsenoside Rb-2 inhibited RLE cell proliferation most potently.

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